Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.

1

1D bar code

A bar code that uses a series of bars and spaces to represent data. 1D barcodes (also called linear bar codes) are read scanning across the width of the bars (one dimension).

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2

2D bar code

A bar code that uses small geometric shapes to represent data. 2D codes stack the shapes or use a matrix to allow more information to be stored in the same space as a 1D bar code. Whereas a 1D bar code only requires the scanner to read a single narrow band across the bar code, a 2D bar code requires the scanner to read the code both horizontally and vertically (two dimensions).

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3

3D bar code

Three-dimensional bar code based on a physically embossed or stamped set of encrypted data interpreted by variations in height rather than contrast between spaces and bars (as used in 2D bar codes). Often used in environments where labels can not be easily attached to items.

3PL

An organization that manages and executes a particular logistics function, using its own assets and resources, on behalf of another company.

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4

4PL

A 4PL is an external business that manages 3PLs on the distributor's behalf

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A

ABC stratification

Group of product prioritisation based on their velocity, quantity sold, inventory investment or sales revenue. Used to determine warehouse location, inventory planning policies and cycle count frequency.

Acknowledgement

A communication by a supplier to advise a purchaser that a purchase order has been received. It usually implies acceptance of the order by the supplier

Active tag

A class of RFID tag that contains a power source, such as a battery, to power the microchip’s circuitry. Active tags transmit a signal to a reader and can be read from 100 feet (approximately 31 meters) or more.

Advanced Shipment Notification (ASN)

Notification to a customer of an impending shipment. Generally an electronic document that includes bar-code information to make receiving easier

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B

B2B

Abbreviation for "Business to Business" - i.e. business relationships between two commercial enterprises

B2C

 Business-to-consumer, denoting trade conducted via the Internet between businesses and consumers

Back-office processes

administrative functions that include: human resources, financial management and budgeting, procurement and payment for purchases

Backhauling

The opposite of head haul. Traditionally referred to as the return trip of a transportation vehicle (usually a truck). Now, it generally refers to the least revenue-generating leg of a shipment haul. A backhaul can be with a full or partially loaded trailer.

Backorder

An item or order that did not, or will not, be shipped in time to meet the estimated delivery date because the item(s) is not available

Bar code

A standard method of identifying the manufacturer and product category of a particular item. The bar code was adopted in the 1970s because the bars were easier for machines to read than optical characters. Unlike RFID tags, direct line of sight is required to read bar codes

Bar code reader

a device used to identify and read a bar code symbol.

BAT

See : Best available techniques

Batch picking

Order picking method where orders are grouped into small batches. An order picker will pick all orders within the batch in one pass

Batch picking

Order picking method where orders are grouped into small
batches. An order picker will pick all orders within the batch in one
pass

Beacon tag

An active tag that transmits only

Best available techniques (BAT)

Best available techniques shall mean the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing, in principle, the basis for emission limit values designed to prevent and, where that is not practicable, generally to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a whole:

  • 'Techniques' shall include both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned,
  • 'Available' techniques shall mean those developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Member State in question, as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator,
  • 'Best' shall mean most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole
Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO)

A BPEO is the outcome of a systematic consultative and decision-making procedure which emphasises the protection and conservation of the environment across land, air and water. The BPEO procedure establishes, for a given set of objectives, the option that provides the most benefit or least damage to the environment as a whole, at acceptable cost, in the long term as well as in the short term

Bulk cargo

Unpacked dry cargo such as grain, iron ore or coal. Any commodity shipped in this way is said to be in bulk

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C

Cabotage

Under Cabotage one understands a foreign haulage contractor carrying out a transport within a country following the completion of an international, trans border transport or the allowance to so do

Capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP)

CVRP is a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) in which a fixed fleet of delivery vehicles of uniform capacity must service known customer demands for a single commodity from a common depot at minimum transit cost. That is, CVRP is like VRP with the additional constraint that every vehicle must have uniform capacity of a single commodity. We can find below a formal description for the CVRP.

  • Objective: The objective is to minimize the vehicle fleet and the sum of travel time, and the total demand of commodities for each route may not exceed the capacity of the vehicle which serves that route.
  • Feasibility: A solution is feasible if the total quantity assigned to each route does not exceed the capacity of the vehicle which services the route.
    Formulation: a solution for the CVRP is the same that VRP's one, but with the additional restriction that the total demand of all customers supplied on a route does not exceed the vehicle capacity
Carbon emissions trading scheme

A scheme in which greenhouse gas emissions are controlled by setting a cap on total transmissions and allowing the market sectors to reach an economically balanced response via trading of emissions allowances. Allowances are allocated initially, perhaps through a free distribution or through an auction, and the total allocation is adjusted periodically

Carbon footprint

The total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person. Measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in tonnes of carbon dioxide (ETAP 2007). A measure of the exclusive total amount of carbon dioxide emissions that is directly and indirectly caused by an activity or is accumulated over the life stages of a product (Thomas Wiedmann and Jan Minx, 2007)

CED

See : Cumulative Energy Demand

Chaîne du froid

See : Cold Chain

Cleaner production

Cleaner Production is the continuous application of an integrated, preventive strategy to processes, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.

Closed loop supply chain

A supply chain designed and managed to explicitly consider the reverse and forward supply chain activities over the entire life cycle of the product

Co-operative systems

Co-operative systems are Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) based on vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications to improve efficiency of the transport systems and in the safety of all road users

Cold chain

A temperature controlled supply chain linked to the material, equipment and procedures used to maintain specific shipments within the appropriate temperature range. Often relates to the distribution of food and pharmaceutical products.

Combination vehicle

An equipment configuration which includes separate power unit (tractor) and at least one trailer

Commodity

Any article exchanged in trade, most commonly used to refer to raw materials and agricultural products

Comodality

The efficient use of different modes on their own and in combination (EC)

Consolidation

A service provided by a freight forwarder in which several smaller shipments are assembled and shipped together to avail of better freight rates and security of cargo. Also called assembly service, cargo consolidation, or freight consolidation.

Container

A "box"' typically ten to forty feet long, which is used primarily for ocean freight shipment. For travel to and from ports, containers are loaded onto truck chassis' or on railroad flatcars

Contract warehouse

A business that handles shipping, receiving, and storage on a contract basis. Contract warehouses are commonly used to reduce freight costs for heavy items. For example, when an item is purchased and delivered in Florida, but not yet sold, the buyer might be in California or perhaps in Florida. It makes financial sense to keep the item stored in Florida until the location of the buyer is known

Corridor (green corridor)

Green transport corridors promote the development of a “greener-oriented” transport system. They endorse the EU vision towards an integrated and sustainable transport system. Green Corridors provide the most environmentally friendly, sustainable, efficient and safest connections for freight transport in Europe.

Cross-dock

Cross-dock operations in a warehouse involve moving goods between different trucks to consolidate loads without intermediate storage

Cumulative Energy Demand (CED)

The Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) of a product represents the direct and indirect energy use throughout the life cycle, including the energy consumed during the extraction, manufacturing, and disposal of the raw and auxiliary materials

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D

Data acquisition

The automatic collection of data from sensors, instruments and devices: in a factory, laboratory or in the field

Data alignment

The one-time synchronous exchange of data between trading partners (e.g., names, addresses, agreements, item information, price lists, or locations)

Data centre

The physical location where electronic information is housed. The data centre of a hosting company is the place where data are stored on secured servers.

Data cleaning

Removing duplicate or incorrect information, updating records, and deleting out of date entries from a database

Data cleansing

See : Data cleaning

Data extraction

Drawing meaningful data from a database to enable analysis of only the relevant data. Usually part of a data mining exercise

Data logger

A data logger (also datalogger or data recorder) is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors. Increasingly, but not entirely, they are based on a digital processor (or computer). They generally are small, battery powered, portable, and equipped with a microprocessor, internal memory for data storage, and sensors. Some data loggers interface with a personal computer and utilize software to activate the data logger and view and analyse the collected data, while others have a local interface device (keypad, LCD) and can be used as a stand-alone device

Data protection

Protection from misuse of personal information stored on electronic systems. The goal is to protect the rights (particularly rights to privacy) and fundamental freedoms of individuals with regard to automatic processing of their personal data.

Database

Database: A database is a collection of information, stored in a computer, which can be readily accessed when needed

Direct routes

The shortest operated route between two points

Discovery Services

A component of the EPCglobal Network consisting of a suite of services that enable users to find data related to a specific Electronic Product Code and to request access to that data. Object Naming Service is one component of Discovery Services

Distance-based methodology to calculate CO2 emissions

Distance-based approach can be used when vehicle activity data is in form of distance travelled but fuel economy factors are not available

Distribution centre

Facility used for receipt, temporary storage, and redistribution of goods according to the customer orders as they are received

Distribution Requirements Planning

A phrase that evolved from Manufacturing Requirements Planning (MRP) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), but is really just inventory management

DRP

See : Distribution Requirements Planning

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E

Eco-efficient solution

Solutions in which environmental damage can only be decreased if costs are increased

Eco-labelling

A labelling system for more environmentally friendly food or consumer products. Usually both the precautionary principle and the substitution principle are used when defining the rules for what products can be eco-labelled

Ecological footprint

In this tool every activity or impact is translated into spatial units. For activities such as agriculture or residential areas, that is quite straightforward. But emissions are also brought under this denominator. For instance, CO2 emissions are taken into account by assessing the forest area needed to absorb a given amount of this gas, and emission of toxic substances is included by determining the soil surface needed to absorb these substances just up to threshold levels

Ecotax

Ecological taxation refers to taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives.

EDI

See : Electronic Data Interchange

Effective

Successful in producing a desired or intended result

Efficient

Achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or expense

Electronic Data Interchange

A method of transmitting freight bills, payment information and invoicing between computers

Electronic Product Code

The EPC is a unique number that is used to identify a specific item in the supply chain. The EPC is stored on an RFID tag, which combines a silicon chip and an antenna. Once the EPC is retrieved from the tag, it can be associated with the data held in a secured database, such as where an item originated or the date of its production. Much like a global trade item number (GTIN) on the barcode or vehicle identification number (VIN), the EPC is the key that contains the information used within the EPCglobal Network. An EPC tag does not carry personally identifiable information

Electronic Product Code Information Services

See : EPCIS

Empty-run

An empty run refers to a vehicle driving to its next loading point without a load. Generally this occurs because one transport order is not supplemented with a direct subsequent load. For instance, the truck driver receives a transport order for a load from Düsseldorf to Paris with the order being completed once the goods are delivered. He however has no load he can pick up directly where he has unloaded. The journey to the next collection point is the empty run. Freight exchanges are an effective means of combating empty running. Users can select a freight offer within seconds or also enter their empty vehicle in the system. Ultimately every transport company wishes to avoid empty running as it is expensive, time-consuming and damaging to the environment

Energy-efficient

Refers to products or systems using less energy to do the same or better job than conventional products or systems. Energy efficiency saves energy, saves money on utility bills, and helps protect the environment by reducing the demand for electricity

Enterprise Resource Planning

Encompasses planning, management and control across the value chain, with the goal of optimizing the deployment of resources for corporate processes. This task is facilitated by special ERP software.

Environmental performance

Measurable results of the environmental management system related to an organization’s control of its environmental aspects, based on its environmental policy, objectives and targets

EPC

See : Electronic Product Code

EPC Capturing Application

A software application that supervises an operational process step in which physical objects are handled, and creates a record of the completion of the step in the form of an EPCIS event. An EPCIS Capturing Application typically interacts with RFID tags and other data carriers

EPC Manager Number

The number allocated to an end user organisation upon joining EPCglobal. It is a globally unique number which identifies the organisation and is used to compose EPC numbers

EPC Reader

An RFID reader that complies with EPCglobal standards.xlvi

EPC Tag

An RFID tag that complies with EPCglobal standards containing an Electronic Product Code

EPC-Enabled RFID

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that uses the Electronic Product Code™ and the EPCglobal system of standards to uniquely identify items, and capture and exchange information relating to their movement and location

EPCglobal Network

A community of trading partners engaged in the capture and sharing of EPC-related data through use of EPCglobal standards based technologies. EPCIS is a one component of the EPCglobal Standards suite that supports the EPCglobal Network

EPCIS

Electronic Product Code Information Services (EPCIS) is an EPCglobal standard for sharing EPC related information between trading partners. EPCIS provides important new capabilities to improve efficiency, security, and visibility in the global supply chain, and complements lower level EPCglobal tag, reader, and middleware standards

ERP

See : Enterprise Resource Planning

Excess Inventory

Excess inventory is inventory in excess of the amount needed to cover an order period. There might be legitimate reasons for carrying excess inventory, for example, to take advantage of a special buying opportunity

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F

FIFO (First-in-first-out)

The warehouse practice of always using the oldest inventory first, important for items with expiration dates. An accounting practice for costing inventory by the oldest first

First mile

Reference to the good’s entry into the transport network. Some examples include: the parcel can be picked up at the sender’s office by a courier, can be dropped off at a postal retail outlet by the sender or can be handed to a courier by the sender at any particular location.

Fleet management

Planning, monitoring, controlling and evaluating operations of a vehicle fleet, including the drivers

Fourth Party Logistics

See : 4PL

Freight exchanges

A freight exchange is a virtual marketplace for freight forwarders and haulage contractors. Its members, freight forwarders and carriers either enter their free HGV capacities and/or freight services into the database or search the freight and return load offers for the load ratio they require.

Fuel-based methodology to calculate CO2 emissions

The fuel-based emission factor is developed based on the fuel’s heat content, the fraction of carbon in the fuel that is oxidized, and the carbon content coefficient

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G

General Packet Radio Service

See : GPRS

GHG Protocol

See : Greenhouse Gas Protocol

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service is a data transmission technology for cellular telephone networks, e.g. for transferring HTML pages to a cellular phone. Billing is usually based on data volume

GPS

The USA's Global Positioning System uses satellite signals to determine the current location. With the help of corresponding maps, this facilitates navigation. Full completion of the European satellite navigation system, Galileo is expected by 2019 (27 operational + 3 active spares). Unlike GPS, it is not a military system.

Green corridor

See : Corridor

Green facility

See : Green warehouse

Green logistics

A logistic activity, which aimed to reduce pollution of the environment and consumption of resource, using of advanced logistics technology planning and implementation of transport, storage, packaging, handling, processing and distribution. It is an effective and efficient flow of goods that connecting the main green supply and the main green demand to overcome the obstacles between space and time and green services activities in the process of economic management, also known as environmental logistics

Green logistics system

Green logistics system includes the following six aspects: green transportation, green storage and safekeeping, loading and unloading system of green, green distribution processing, collection and management of green information

Green marketing

The marketing of products based on their (possibly alleged) environmental sustainability and can incorporate product modification, changes to the production process and packaging changes as well as modifying advertising. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing

Green package

Green package, can also be called “ecological package” or “environmental friendly package”, is defined as environmental friendly package, which is completely made by natural plants, can be circle or second use, be prone to degradation and promote sustainable development, even during its whole lifecycle, it is hurtles to environment as well as to human body and livestock’s health. In short, green packaging is the appropriate packaging that can be reused, recycled or degradation, corruption and does not cause pollution in humans and the environment during the product life cycle

Green procurement

The process of obtaining products and services that are favourably disposed toward the environment/sustainability.

Green transportation

See : Sustainable transportation

Green warehouse

A storehouse for goods and merchandise constructed using a design philosophy which focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use (e.g. energy, water, and materials) while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment during the buildings life-cycle through better siting, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal.

Greenhouse gas

Gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the green-house effect, which is today discussed with respect to global warming – but which is also fundamental to guarantee temperatures on the Earth that make life possible in the first place

Greenhouse Gas Protocol

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is the most widely used international accounting tool for government and business leaders to understand, quantify, and manage greenhouse gas emissions. A decade-long partnership between the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), the GHG Protocol is working with businesses, governments, and environmental groups around the world to build a new generation of credible and effective programs for tackling climate change

GSM

The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spéciale Mobile) is a standard for fully digital mobile phone networks that are mainly used for telephony, but also for circuit-switched and packet-switched data transmission and for text messaging. It is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world

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H

Head haul

Head haul: The term used to define the highest revenue-generating shipping lane from shipper to consignee. Opposite of backhaul.

Hub-and-spoke

The hub-and-spoke network is a system of connections arranged like a chariot wheel, in which all traffic moves along spokes connected to the hub at the centre

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I

ICT

Shorthand for Information Communication Technology and refers to all the digital devices (computers, cell phones, smartphones, etc.) that play a role in the creation of new media modes of interaction between people. The move from the term IT to ICT exemplifies the increasing degree to which communication between people, rather than mere information storage and retrieval, has come to define the world of new media technology

Information Communication Technology

See : ICT

Information technology

See : IT

Intelligent Transport System

The integration of information and communications technology with transport infrastructure, vehicles and users

Intermodal transport

Movement of cargo containers interchangeably between different transport modes where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems.

Internet of Things

A fusion of the digital world and the physical world that brings together different concepts and technical components. Everyday objects and machines have sensors and can “communicate” with each other over the Internet, making new models possible for business processes, collaboration, miniaturisation of devices, and mobile communications

Internet Protocol Address

See : IP Address

Internet Protocol, version4

See : IPv4

Internet Protocol, version6

See : IPv6

Interoperability

Ability of independent systems to exchange meaningful information and initiate actions from each other, in order to operate together to mutual benefit

Intranet

A network serving a single organization or site that is modelled after the Internet, allowing users’ access to almost any information available on the network. Unlike the Internet, intranets are typically limited to one organization or one site, with little or no access to outside users

IP Address

An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a unique address that devices use in order to identify and communicate with each other on a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol standard (IP)

IP VPN

A Virtual Private Network based on the Internet Protocol (IP), such as a corporate intranet. An IP VPN permits the local networks (LANs) connected to it to exchange data via a secure channel (IP tunnelling). This enables users to access a corporate network from any Internet access point throughout the world

IPv4

The most widely used version of the Internet Protocol (the "IP" part of TCP/IP.)  IPv4 allows for a theoretical maximum of approximately four billion IP Numbers, but the actual number is far less due to inefficiencies in the way blocks of IP addresses are assigned to sub-networks. The gradual adoption of IPv6 will solve this problem

IPv6

A new version of the IP protocol that expands the range of IP addresses from 32 bits to 128 bits, which relieves the strain on the current universe of IP addresses. IPv6 is backward compatible with IPv4 to allow its gradual adoption.

IT

Information Technology (IT) is a collective term for information and data processing and the hardware and software used for this purpose

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L

Last mile

The final leg in a business-to-consumer delivery service whereby the consignment is delivered to the recipient, either at the recipient’s home or at a collection point.

LBS

See : Location-based services

Less-Than-Truckload

A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload rate. The historical definition for LTL freight is shipments under 10,000 pounds. LTL carriers are carriers which specialize in shipments under 10,000 pounds. However, competition from other freight carriers restricts shipments for most LTL carriers to the range between 300 and 3000 pounds

Lifecycle assessment

A method for assessing the total environmental impact of a product or service "from cradle to grave", including all phases of production, use, and final disposal.

LIFO (Last-in-first-out)

An accounting method of costing inventory by the cost of the most recently received item.lxxii

Location-based services (LBS)

Location Based Services play a key role in ensuring mobility and flexibility in today’s networked world. For complex business models – such as that of Toll Collect – LBS identify the position of objects, and capture and manage the corresponding data. The company’s pioneering road-pricing system gathers information on a truck’s location and calculates road charges– one example of how LBS can be combined with satellite and wireless technology to provide visibility into the movement of traffic and goods. LBS are high-availability services that can be deployed practically anywhere – enabling entirely new business models. What’s more, Location-Based Services can simplify and improve everyday life for consumers, too.

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M

Milk run

A pickup and/or delivery route where several sequential stops are made. It usually refers to a regularly run route, but it may also refer to a one-time run where several stops are made. Some consider a milk run to mean a route where shipments are delivered and inbound materials are picked up in the same run. Also known as dedicated delivery.

Multimodal transport

Transport of people or goods by more than one mode of transport during a single journey

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O

Open Source Software

Software with the source code freely available for modification. While the best-known open source programs, like LibreOffice, GIMP, Mozilla Firefox or Linux itself, are free, often lesser-known programs labelled as open source will use a proprietary database or other component that must be purchased.

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P

Paperless

Conducting operations electronically instead of with printed documents

Parcel

The individual items that make up a shipment.lxxviii

Parcel tracking

A system used by some carriers that records the shipping status of each individual item in a shipment

Passive label

See : Passive tag

Passive tag

An RFID tag that does not contain a power source. The tag generates an electromagnetic field when radio waves from a reader reach the antenna. These radio waves power the tag and enable it to send back information stored on the chip.

Piggyback

The transportation of highway trailers or removable trailer bodies on rail cars specifically equipped for the service. It is essentially a joint carrier movement in which the motor carrier forms a pickup and delivery operations to a rail terminal, as well as a delivery operation at the terminating rail head

Positioning

Determination of the geographical position of a physical object.

Protocol

On the Internet "protocol" usually refers to a set of rules that define an exact format for communication between systems. For example the HTTP protocol defines the format for communication between web browsers and web servers, the IMAP protocol defines the format for communication between IMAP email servers and clients, and the SSL protocol defines a format for encrypted communications over the Internet.

Pull Logistics System

"Just in time" logistics system driven by customer demand and enabled by telecommunications and information systems rather than by manufacturing process and inventory stockpiling.

Push Logistics System

Inventory-based logistics system characterized by regularly scheduled flows of products and high inventory levels

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R

Radio frequency identification

See : RFID

Read-only tags

RFID tags containing data that cannot be changed unless the chip is electronically reprogrammed

Read-write tags

RFID tags with the capability to record and update data multiple times

Reefer Trailer

A refrigerated trailer that is commonly used for perishable goods.lxxxviii

Reverse Logistics

A specialized segment of logistics focusing on the movement and management of products and resources after the sale and after delivery to the customer. Includes product returns and repair for credit.

RFID

An automatic identification technique for identifying objects using radio frequency transmissions. An RFID system generally consists of a tag, reader, antenna and software

RFID reader

An RFID reader communicates via radio waves with RFID tags and delivers the information in a digital format to a computer system. Also known as an interrogator

RFID Tags

An RFID tag is simply another type of data carrier. Essentially tags comprise a semi-conductor chip with memory, processing capability and a transmitter connected to an antenna (aerial). Memory can vary with simple tags having a small amount of fixed memory (typically between 64-128 bytes) and more complex tags ranging up to 64 kilobytes. RFID tags can be passive, (meaning they have no power source and can only send information when powered up by a reader during the interrogation process) or active (meaning they have their own power supply and can generally store more information, transmit at greater distances and may have sensing capability).

Rich Site Summary

See : RSS

RSS

Shorthand for Real Simple Syndication, or Rich Site Summary. A process by which news or other time-sensitive information is conveyed automatically to online subscribers.

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S

Semi-passive tags

A class of RFID tags that contain a power source, such as a battery, to power the microchip’s circuitry. Unlike active tags, semi-passive tags do not use the battery to communicate with the reader. Some semi-passive tags are dormant until activated by a signal from a reader. This conserves battery power and can lengthen the life of the tag.

Sensor

A device that produces an electronic signal in response to a physical stimulus. Sensors are more frequently being integrated into RFID tags to allow for the detection of a stimulus at an identifiable location. Example: temperature monitoring of a chilled item.

Small and Medium Enterprises

See : SMEs

Smart label

A label containing an RFID tag, which can communicate with a reader and store information such as a unique serial number.

SMEs

Small and Medium Enterprises are defined as businesses which employ less than 250 persons and whose annual turnover is less than 50 million euros or annual balance sheet total not exceeding 10 million euros.

Supply chains

Refer to the multiple processes that connect customers and suppliers. It is about logistics — getting the right materials to the right people and places at the right time. Effective supply chain management is vital for organizations to be successful.

Sustainability

In a broad sense, the capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. For human society, it is the potential for long-term maintenance of well-being, which in turn depends on the well-being of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources. Sustainability has three facets: environmental, economic, and social.

Sustainable development

Development that provides economic, social and environmental benefits in the long term having regard to the needs of living and future generations. Defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 as: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Sustainable transport

1- A sustainable transportation system is “one in which fuel consumption, vehicle emissions, safety, congestion, and social and economic access are of such levels that they can be sustained into the indefinite future without causing great or irreparable harm to future generations of people throughout the world’’. Richerdson 1999
2- A sustainable transportation is “transportation that does not endanger public health or ecosystems and that meets needs for access consistent with (a) use of renewable resources that are below their rates of regeneration, and (b) use of non-renewable resources below the rates of development of renewable substitutes.

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T

Tag actif

See : Active tag

Third-Party Logistics Provider

See : 3PL

TMS

See : Transportation management System

Transhipping

Transfer for further transportation from one ship or conveyance to another

Transportation Management System

Software for yard management, fleet or carrier management, routing, rate shopping and shipment manifesting.

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V

Vehicle Routing Problem

The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a generic name given to a whole class of problems in which a set of routes for a fleet of vehicles based at one or several depots must be determined for a number of geographically dispersed cities or customers. The objective of the VRP is to deliver a set of customers with known demands on minimum-cost vehicle routes originating and terminating at a depot.

Vehicle routing problem with backhauls

The Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhauls is a pickup/delivery problem where on each route all deliveries must be made before any pickups.

VRP

See : Vehicle Routing Problem

VRPB

See : Vehicle routing problem with backhauls

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W

Warehouse

Storage place for products. Principal warehouse activities include receipt of product, storage, shipment and order picking.

Warehouse Management System

Module or third-party software package that manages the storage layout and movement of inventory in the warehouse. WMS software generally integrates to radio-frequency scanner terminals or to RFID scanners for improved accuracy and real-time operations.

Wave picking

Picking a number of orders for a customer or a truck simultaneously in order to follow an efficient route through the warehouse and to eliminate traffic jams in the warehouse.

Way bill

A document from the forwarder which accompanies the goods. Acts both as a document which proves the content of the freight contract is present and as notice of receipt when the goods were uplifted from the forwarder and delivered to the receiver.

WMS

See : Warehouse Management System

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X

XML

eXtensible Markup Language is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is designed to store and transport data and is designed to be self-descriptive. In other words, XML is a software- and hardware-independent tool for carrying information.

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